There were a significant number of new writers whose works were being translated at the end of the twentieth century. Thus, as Werner 8 states, the translation flow from Brazil to other countries and languages are influenced by the economic and political position of the country in the international scene, and also by individuals who play a decisive role in the growth of the translation system.
Within the fourteen years of the twenty-first century covered by my research, it was possible to observe three parallel phenomena regarding the international impact of Brazilian literature:. Paulo Coelho is a particular case within Brazilian contemporary literature see table 9. On the other hand, Coelho has remained ignored or criticized by academia owing to the themes of his novels, which are generally connected to esoteric issues, and their lack of cultural content. Furthermore, the quality and originality of his works have been thrown into sharp focus by academics in contrast with his planetary market success.
Moreover, the canonical writer Clarice Lispector seems to have been rediscovered in the twenty-first century as her works have been republished in the anglophone world, with good international reception see table The result was that several of her most important novels were re-translated within a period of four years.
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Having Brazilian literature as an example, the translation of literary works into English seems to be an important step towards achieving planetary dimensions in the cultural market, as we can see in the cases of Paulo Coelho and Clarice Lispector. Regarding re-translations, it is worth mentioning the impact that they generally have on the quality of translated works and consequently on the translation flow.
The decision to re-translate concomitantly a number of her books was, however, initiated by Benjamin Moser, when New Directions was preparing to reissue A hora da estrela [ The Hour of the Star ].
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According to Lowe , he convinced the publisher to proceed with more re-translations, which raises issues regarding translation politics. Another point to be considered is regarding new Brazilian literature see table These new ways of promoting international literature have influenced the status quo of Brazilian literary works in English. The series Babel Guide to Brazilian Fiction , published by Boulevard Books in , and the Best of Young Brazilian Novelist s, published by Granta in , have also helped to shape the variety of current writers who have been translated into English.
It is important to highlight the Babel Guide to Brazilian Fiction within the first works that have brought together writers of contemporary Brazilian literature at the dawn of the twenty-first century. Of the thirty-nine authors selected for this issue of Babel Guides , all have had their work translated into English. Looking at this panorama from the perspective of the twenty-first century, we can observe that the number of translated works has not increased significantly, as can be seen in figure 1.
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There are, however, some interesting data which refer to the number of translations between and twenty-seven translations were found among the data collected, not including re-translations and reprints. One of the reasons suggested for these new paths for translation is the ease of access to world literature and reading through digital resources, especially via e-books.
Books once considered to be inaccessible to the majority of anglophone readers, owing to the print runs of the translated editions, are nowadays easily found on the Internet to be bought and downloaded. Another reason is connected to the role of international prizes and awards, literary festivals and book fairs, which have brought writers together from all over the world.
It is also worth mentioning the movement to promote writers and translators provided by the Brazilian government, through the International Book Centre; 13 by international organizations, such as the British Centre for Literary Translation and the British Council; and by academia, which has been launching new books since the s, through publishers such as Tagus Press University of Massachusetts , Texas University Press and Oxford University Press; also publishing houses which have published on digital media new books of Brazilian in translation, such as Amazon Crossing.
Nevertheless, these new perspectives for Brazilian literature in translation do not include the genre of poetry. The majority of the translations are novels and short stories, data relating to which has not been fully collected in the research because anthologies and collections of selected works were not included.
The Brazilian poet who has been translated into English most often is Carlos Drummond de Andrade, with selections of his poems being published in the USA in the s and s including Travelling in the Family , translated by Thomas Colchie. Moreover, very few plays have been translated because this genre seems to have been forgotten in the world of translation.
Jackson —17 claims that Brazilian plays in English are confined to the mid-twentieth century, perhaps as a consequence of the fact that Brazilian literature remains relatively unknown among English-speaking readers. In the twenty-first century, little has been done to change this situation.
Nevertheless, research into the essay genre in translation is beyond the scope of this article. On the other hand, the creation of projects for the translation of Latin American works into English and research into translation and Latin American studies carried out at universities has produced a substantial amount of Brazilian works translated into English. The selection of works translated in the nineteenth and the twenty-first centuries seems to be for the following diverse reasons: the contact of explorers, travelers and researchers with Brazilian culture; the reception of Brazilian literature in Brazil and the formation of the canon within Brazilian letters; the boom of Latin American literature; the bestseller books in the Brazilian cultural market; the economic and political opening up of the country from the s; the increasing number of departments of Latin American and Lusophone studies at universities; and the connection between selected works of Brazilian literature within world literature and the effects of cultural globalization, such as the ease of air travel and the boom of the Internet.
However, there are still many barriers that prevent a greater flow of translations of Brazilian literature, especially the difficulties of translating from Brazilian Portuguese, the lack of brokering of Brazilian literature abroad and the fact that the language remains in a peripheral position in the cultural market. As Albert Braz 17 suggests, translation requires that one artefact is transported from one culture to another, and Brazilian literature has a long way to go with regard to the expansion of its processes of transculturalization.
Brazilian literature, as with any other cultural system in the world, has to be aware of these forces. Somewhere between sacrifice and playfulness, prison and transgression, submission to the code and aggression, obedience and rebellion, assimilation and expression — there, in this apparently empty space, its temple and its clandestinity, is where the anthropophagous ritual of Latin American discourse is constructed. Santiago Brazilian Literary Works in English Translations from to First, the literary works included refer to books of Brazilian literature fully translated into English, rather than anthologies, collections or selected works.
Second, literature for children and non-fiction e. See Swanson. In that hierarchy, the Coelho phenomenon is linked only to the market, not literature; it can interest the sociology of consumption, but not literary studies. I would like to thank Prof. Last, special thanks to Philip de Lacy White, for the comments on an earlier draft of this article. Itatiaia: Belo Horizonte. Armstrong, Piers. Ipotesi 13 1 : 13— Braz, Albert. Graphos 9 1 : — Brazilian Literature: Challenges for Translation Carrera, Elena. University of Nottingham, pp.
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Classe, Olive ed. Encyclopedia of Literary Translation into English. London and Chicago: Fitzroy Dearborn Publishers. Damrosch, David. London and New York: Routledge.
Granta The Guardian, June 5 Web. Other Carnivals: New Stories from Brazil. XVIII , 3 vols. Lisbon: Verbo, —99 ]. Manuel N.
os tripeiros romance chronica do seculo xiv portuguese edition Manual
Joaquim Abranches, S. Poitiers: H. Oudin, —86 with the title Les prisons du Marquis de Pombal minister de S. Gazeta de Lisboa, , September 12, In the aftermath of the first Napoleonic invasion, in November , the court and the royal family fled to Brazil, where they resided from to With the arrival of the liberal troops, on July 24, , the seventeen French Jesuits working in Coimbra were imprisoned. They boarded to Genoa on July 7, , due to the intervention of the French ambassador. The Jesuits living in Lisbon, including Delvaux, superior of the Portuguese mission, had been deported to Italy and England in August In that same year, an anti-Jesuit booklet printed in Rio de Janeiro foretold the epilogue of the French mission: F.
The Society of Jesus was informally restored in It was officially reinstated as Portuguese mission in , and Francis Xavier Fulconis —80 was its superior. By , the mission comprised nine residencies and colleges in which there lived Jesuits. Robert A. Maryks Leiden: Brill, , —58 doi: Besides, it also included a long and detailed preface, with more than seventy pages, where Borges Grainha accused the Jesuits of being illiterate and manipulative clerics obsessed with power.
Carlos Reis Lisbon: Alfa, , 95—]. John C. Marianno de Carvalho e o Collegio de S. In , the Portuguese province comprised priests, scholastics, and temporal coadjutors. Established in Dieleghem —14 , on the outskirts of Brussels, it was successively transferred to Los Placeres —16 and La Guardia —32 , both in Spain, and finally to Santo-Tirso — , in Portugal, where it still functions today. Francisco Rodrigues Porto: n.
From onwards, some expelled Jesuits discreetly returned to Portugal, opening the way for their official reinstatement in Teixeira, — Porto: Livraria Apostolado da Imprensa, — Alden, The Making of an Enterprise. For an overview of the history of philosophy in early modern Portugal, see: Pedro Calafate, ed. For an excellent overview of the life and work of Molina see: Matthias Kaufmann, Alexander Aichele, eds.
The historiography of the Portuguese Jesuit missions in Brazil, East Asia, and Africa largely exceeds the aim of this essay. However, it should be acknowledged the importance of these works for the emergence of a new generation of scholars focused on the economic, scientific, educational, artistic, and cultural aspects of these missions.
For an overview of the Portuguese Atlantic missions in the seventeenth century see: Alden, The Making of an Enterprise , — Its objective was to provide a diachronic narrative of the Brazilian province from to Abbeville gives us valuable information concerning the religion and 'astronomy' of the Tupis, not to be found in any other writings.
Amiens, and Claude d? Abbeville relates the mission? He also adds detailed descriptions of the region, including the animals, birds and fish found there, as well as chapters on the customs, laws, wars and history of the Tupi indians. The account ends with the return voyage to France, the group's arrival and welcome in Paris, and the ensuing festivities. Abbeville brought back to France six important Tupi, portraits of whom appear in this account see below. The Indian ambassadors caused a sensation in Paris, where curious crowds flocked to see them. Borba de Moraes notes that "the Histoire de la mission seems to have been printed very quickly in order to take advantage of the presence in Paris of the six Indians from Maranh o.
It appears that the first edition [i. This was published with the misprints corrected, and a more extensive index was compiled and printed in 35 pp. At the top of the engraved title page, eight Indians petition Marie de Medicis, regent of France small banners with Latin flow from their mouths. Below, Tupi again with Latin banners petition the Pope and St. At the lower left, a Tupi grills two human legs over an open fire as a woman looks on. At the lower right, kneeling Indians are blessed by Capuchin friars.
The first full-page engraving f. Three portraits show Tupi in native dress, all with weapons, one with extensive tattoos ff. The other three portraits show Tupi wearing the soutane in which they were baptized, carrying a tall hat and a fleur-de-lys ff.