Nevertheless, in Spain it seems to have often been the wealthier Jews who accepted last-minute baptism, and they of course retained their property. The Catholic Monarchs were perfectly aware of the risks they took in expelling the Jews, who channeled tax income towards the royal treasuries of Aragon and Castile.
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It must have been expected that the great administrators and tax farmers, the Seneor, Caballeria and Santangel families, would not leave Spain but would continue after baptism to act with as much benefit to the country as previously, as they indeed did. The Edict of Expulsion was issued on 31 March , giving the Jews four months' notice to accept baptism or leave. By 1 August, all the Spanish Jews would have to be baptized or gone.
So much did the Cath- olic Monarchs want to encourage conversion rather than lose the Jews, that they allowed even Jews who left Spain to return, have themselves baptized and be accepted into Christian society. Indeed, many did so, since they found the difficulties of leaving with their families, obtaining a price for their property, travelling to the frontier or the sea, getting passage on a ship, together with the uncertainty for their safety on board and wherever the ship took them, too great to overcome.
Even much later, in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, the Inquisi- tion documents provide evidence of descendants of Jews from the Iberian Peninsula who were returning to Spain and presenting them- selves for baptism. Statistics of the expulsion The evidence for the numbers of Jews who left Spain is so contradictory and based on such uncertain figures for the existing Jewish population that it is very difficult to draw a reliable picture.
Most older authors 28 Crypto-Judaism and the Spanish Inquisition made assumptions, unsupported by statistics.
The Jewish authors may fairly be assumed to have exaggerated the number of the exiles, because to do so magnified the catastrophe and lessened what was seen as betrayal by the weaker members of the community who accepted baptism. This makes it difficult to accept the frequently quoted figure of ,, given by the distinguished counsellor of Isabella and Ferdinand and well-known Bible exegete, Don Isaac Abarbanel. Julio Caro Baroja suggests that Abarbanel possessed an old census of Jews, based on family tax records, which gave his figure of , He calculates the Jewish population of Spain in as ,, of whom he asserts, without explaining why, that , accepted baptism and , went into exile.
The figure of , exiles helps to explain the survival and power- ful influence of the Spanish Jews in Greece, Turkey and many cities around the Mediterranean, even though most of the exiled Jews are thought to have gone to neighbouring Portugal. After a century of baptisms of Jews, it seems unlikely that there could still be , in A more likely figure is 80, to 90,, living mostly in Castile. He repeats what he was told by one of the rabbis who returned from the uncertainties of life in exile and asked Bernaldez to baptise him.
Bernaldez also quotes Meir Melamed, the son-in-law of Abraham Seneor, who had given these figures to his father-in-law, though Bernaldez does not say where he obtained this information. Henry Kamen finds these figures unacceptable against the background of a total population which he gives as 5,,; , Jews would be about 3 per cent, in a Spain where a century of pressure had decimated the Jewish communities.
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Kamen prefers a figure of 80, to 90, Jews, which he bases on The Inquisition Begins Work 29 taxation statistics founded on the number of households with actual incomes high enough to pay taxes. However, this does not include families whose poverty left them out of the taxpaying net, so such a form of calculating population may well indicate only minimum figures.
Besides, Kamen thinks that the multiple of 6 used to calculate the number of individuals per family is too high. It is not clear, how- ever, why this should be so when, up to very modern times, it was usual for the parents of at least one of the spouses to live with them, together with immarried siblings and other single women or widows.
It is also quite likely that the servants or some of them may have been Jewish. The general view is that most Castilian Jews went to Portugal, the nearest country. Of those who set sail from Mediterranean ports or ventured across the Straits of Gibraltar, many must have died in shipwrecks, at the hands of callous shipmasters or on the inhospitable coasts of North Africa.
The old, the sick and the frail would have died in considerable numbers, given that the journey from the interior of Spain, in the heat of the summer, must have been more than they could bear. Yet there were sufficient Jewish exiles to create important and long-lasting com- munities in Italy and in the Ottoman empire. All this tends to support the view that the number of Jews still in Spain at the Expulsion must have been larger than 85, Kamen also insists that only a minority of the 85, left Spain, but, if only a minority left, and if the majority of this minority went to Portugal, where did the new Spanish commimities all over the Medi- terranean come from, and how did they manage to take over existing communities?
Kamen's view is that there is little documentation about the emigrants and that the new commimities must have been built up later, as converts steadily left the peninsula over the following decades. Kamen's conclusion is that of 70, Castilian Jews a little over half emigrated, though a substantial number returned quickly.
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Adding the emigrants from Aragon, where the Jewish communities had been decimated over the previous century, Kamen fixes the number of exiles as 40, or 50, This figure suggests that about the same number remained in Spain and accepted baptism. Kamen leaves the argument here, and does not challenge the figures for those punished by the Inquisition over the fol- lowing decades. If this latter figure is accurately assessed at the 50, which has been given, it would suggest that virtually all the Jews who 30 Crypto-Judaism and the Spanish Inquisition opted for baptism in were punished or at least had to confess as false converts and Judaizers.
These low figures give food for thought and redress the balance after the exaggerations of previous statistics. Their defect, however, is that they are based on taxation returns, which refer to households and not individuals, that they minimize the figures for emigrants to Portugal and the Ottoman empire, and that they do not take into account Inquisi- tion statistics, which historians may tend to underestimate because so much documentation has been lost.
Those who remained Of the new converts of and the descendants of previous ones, the figure of 50, punished by the Inquisition in its early years was given by the authorities of the cathedral of Toledo. However, did those authorities really investigate all the Inquisition courts? Or was the pur- pose of the statement to defend the statute of limpieza de sangre by stressing how dangerous it was to appoint people of Jewish descent to positions of ecclesiastical importance?
And how widespread was such descent? Without answers to these questions, the figure of 50, cannot be verified. Nevertheless, a high figure cannot be ruled out. The ferocity of the Inquisition in its first forty or fifty years against converts suspected of Judaizing wiped out Spanish secret Judaism almost completely.
How- ever, the converts of were people who - both they and their ancestors - had rejected all the pressures and blandishments of the missionaries for a whole century, including the mass attacks of , the conversionist campaign of and the intellectual and spiritual pressure of Christian and anti-Jewish written works. They had seen the destruction of the Jewish community of Toledo in and those of Ciudad Real, Cordoba, Jaen, Segovia and Valladolid between and The converts of were, thus, Jews who had survived, but could not withstand the alternative of exile.
It is, con- sequently, possible that the proportion of false converts among the last 45, or so Jews baptized in Spain may have been quite high, so the figure of 50, victims of the Inquisition is not an unfeasible order of magnitude. By , it can be assumed, most descendants of conversos were well on the way to complete assimilation with the Christian population. Indeed, two famous books - El tizon de la nobleza Stain on the Nobility for Castile, and El libra verde or Green Book for Aragon - proved that The Inquisition Begins Work 31 marriage into converso families had been widespread among the nobility and other classes of society.
Portugal Events such as the attacks on the Spanish communities in had not happened in Portugal, save for one, motivated more by robbery than by religious hatred, on the Jewish quarter of Lisbon in Indeed, the number of surviving manuscripts and of incunabula published in the decade before the forced conversion of demonstrates a high level of prosperity and tranquillity for Portugal's Jews.
The impression of care conveyed by the precise figures given by Andres Bernaldez, the observant parish priest of Los Palacios, is under- lined when he gives a detailed statistical list of the numbers of emigrants and the routes taken by Jews who crossed into Portugal in the summer of From Benavente to Braganza 3, From Zamora to Miranda 30, From Ciudad Rodrigo to Vilar Formoso 35, From Alcantara to Marvao 15, From Badajoz to Elvas 10, According to Bernaldez, the figures had been rounded down, so that at least 93, Jews left Spain for Portugal, from Castile alone.
December 2nd, 2018
These migrants were added to the converts who had been fleeing Spain for Portugal ever since the Spanish Inquisition had begun its work in It was not for humanitarian motives that the Portuguese authorities received the mass of fleeing Spanish Jews. On the contrary, except for a few Jews who had skills which Portugal badly needed and who paid only four cruzados in entry tax, the Jews had to pay eight cruzados per head in instalments.
Those who had not paid after eight months were sold as slaves. In , several hundred children aged between two and ten were forcibly taken from their parents and abandoned in the archipelago of Santo Tome on the coast of Africa. Most died. Following negotiations for the new king to marry Isabel, daughter of the Spanish monarchs, on 5 December , Manoel gave all Jews, whether Portuguese or recent Spanish immigrants, ten 32 Crypto-Judaism and the Spanish Inquisition months to leave or accept baptism. Yet it was evident that Portugal needed its Jews even more than Spain did hers, given that it was deeply involved in long voyages of exploration in which the Jews played an important role as experts in cartography and navigation, not to speak of the necessary finance.
What was wanted was not the disappearance of the Jews but their conversion to Christianity. Therefore, on 19 March , seven months before the final date previously set for the Jews to decide whether to accept baptism or to leave the country, all Jews were ordered by the authorities to gather along the quays of Lisbon to embark for exile. Fearing perhaps that he might lose so many useful citizens, Manoel issued a decree which prohibited their departure and ordered the Jews to be baptized.
Even though he was advised that forcible baptism was against canon law, Manoel insisted that his devotion to the Faith allowed him to proceed in this way for the greater good. The Portuguese Jews, together with the Spanish Jews who had entered Portugal in , were forcibly baptized. Unlike the earlier Spanish conversos, they did not submit as a result of decades of pressure and persuasion.
These forced baptisms in Portugal in could not have been religiously meaningful to the Jews. Yet, though by canon law baptism should be voluntary, once carried out it was a valid sacra- ment, and this was the legal justification for accusing the Judaizers of heresy. Estimado Obispo Alejandro Hoy vuelvo a ponerme en contacto con usted para aclarar una duda Dios le bendiga Obispo Dom Alejandro por esta pagina de gran ayuda para cualquier Cristiano que busque la verdad. Hristos Vaskrese! Brothers and sisters,can you help me to find Orthodox Church in Oklahoma?
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