Numerous polemicists, such as Irish journalist Philip Graves in a article in The Times , and British academic Norman Cohn in his book Warrant for Genocide , have proven The Protocols to be both a hoax and a clear case of plagiarism. There is general agreement that Russian-French writer and political activist Matvei Golovinski fabricated the text for Okhrana , the secret police of the Russian Empire , as a work of counter-revolutionary propaganda prior to the Russian Revolution , by plagiarizing, almost word for word in some passages, from The Dialogue in Hell Between Machiavelli and Montesquieu , a 19th-century satire against Napoleon III of France written by French political satirist and Legitimist militant Maurice Joly.
Responsible for feeding many antisemitic and anti-Masonic mass hysterias of the 20th century, The Protocols has been influential in the development of some conspiracy theories, including some New World Order theories, and appears repeatedly in certain contemporary conspiracy literature. They speculated that this secret society was working behind the scenes to establish a theocratic " United States of Europe ".
Politically and religiously unified through the imperial cult of a Merovingian Great Monarch —supposedly descended from a Jesus bloodline —who occupies both the throne of Europe and the Holy See , this "Holy European Empire" would become the hyperpower of the 21st century. Skeptics argue that the current gambit of contemporary conspiracy theorists who use The Protocols is to claim that they "really" come from some group other than the Jews, such as fallen angels or alien invaders.
Although it is hard to determine whether the conspiracy-minded actually believe this or are simply trying to sanitize a discredited text, skeptics argue that it does not make much difference, since they leave the actual, antisemitic text unchanged. The result is to give The Protocols credibility and circulation. During the second half of Britain's "imperial century" between and , English-born South African businessman, mining magnate and politician Cecil Rhodes advocated the British Empire reannexing the United States of America and reforming itself into an " Imperial Federation " to bring about a hyperpower and lasting world peace.
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In his first will, written in at the age of 23, he expressed his wish to fund a secret society known as the Society of the Elect that would advance this goal:. In , thirteen years after "his now famous will," Rhodes elaborated on the same idea: establishment of "England everywhere," which would "ultimately lead to the cessation of all wars, and one language throughout the world.
Rhodes also concentrated on the Rhodes Scholarship , which had British statesman Alfred Milner as one of its trustees. Established in , the original goal of the trust fund was to foster peace among the great powers by creating a sense of fraternity and a shared world view among future British, American, and German leaders by having enabled them to study for free at the University of Oxford.
Milner and British official Lionel George Curtis were the architects of the Round Table movement , a network of organizations promoting closer union between Britain and its self-governing colonies.
To this end, Curtis founded the Royal Institute of International Affairs in June and, with his book The Commonwealth of God , began advocating for the creation of an imperial federation that eventually reannexes the U. The Council on Foreign Relations began in with a group of New York academics who were asked by President Woodrow Wilson to offer options for the foreign policy of the United States in the interwar period.
Originally envisioned as a group of American and British scholars and diplomats, some of whom belonging to the Round Table movement, it was a subsequent group of New York financiers, manufacturers and international lawyers organized in June by Nobel Peace Prize recipient and U. It is a private organization established to foster closer cooperation among the United States, Europe and Japan. In the s, right-wing populist individuals and groups with a paleoconservative worldview, such as members of the John Birch Society , were the first to combine and spread a business nationalist critique of corporate internationalists networked through think tanks such as the Council on Foreign Relations with a grand conspiracy theory casting them as front organizations for the Round Table of the "Anglo-American Establishment ", which are financed by an "international banking cabal" that has supposedly been plotting from the late 19th century on to impose an oligarchic new world order through a global financial system.
Anti- globalist conspiracy theorists therefore fear that international bankers are planning to eventually subvert the independence of the U.
New World Order (conspiracy theory) - Wikipedia
The research findings of historian Carroll Quigley , author of the book Tragedy and Hope , are taken by both conspiracy theorists of the American Old Right W. Cleon Skousen and New Left Carl Oglesby to substantiate this view, even though Quigley argued that the Establishment is not involved in a plot to implement a one-world government but rather British and American benevolent imperialism driven by the mutual interests of economic elites in the United Kingdom and the United States.
Quigley also argued that, although the Round Table still exists today , its position in influencing the policies of world leaders has been much reduced from its heyday during World War I and slowly waned after the end of World War II and the Suez Crisis. Today the Round Table is largely a ginger group , designed to consider and gradually influence the policies of the Commonwealth of Nations , but faces strong opposition. Furthermore, in American society after , the problem, according to Quigley, was that no elite was in charge and acting responsibly. Larry McDonald , the second president of the John Birch Society and a conservative Democratic member of the United States House of Representatives who represented the 7th congressional district of Georgia , wrote a foreword for Allen 's book The Rockefeller File , wherein he claimed that the Rockefellers and their allies were driven by a desire to create a one-world government that combined "super- capitalism " with communism and would be fully under their control.
He saw a conspiracy plot that was "international in scope, generations old in planning, and incredibly evil in intent. For more than a century ideological extremists at either end of the political spectrum have seized upon well-publicized incidents Some even believe we are part of a secret cabal working against the best interests of the United States, characterizing my family and me as 'internationalists' and of conspiring with others around the world to build a more integrated global political and economic structure—one world, if you will.
If that's the charge, I stand guilty, and I am proud of it. Barkun argues that this statement is partly facetious the claim of "conspiracy" and " treason " and partly serious—the desire to encourage trilateral cooperation among the U. The statement, however, is taken at face value and widely cited by conspiracy theorists as proof that the Council on Foreign Relations uses its role as the brain trust of American presidents, senators and representatives to manipulate them into supporting a New World Order in the form of a one-world government.
In a 13 November interview with Canadian journalist Benjamin Fulford, Rockefeller countered that he felt no need for a world government and wished for the governments of the world to work together and collaborate. He also stated that it seemed neither likely nor desirable to have only one elected government rule the whole world.
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He criticized accusations of him being "ruler of the world" as nonsensical. Some American social critics , such as Laurence H. Shoup, argue that the Council on Foreign Relations is an " imperial brain trust" which has, for decades, played a central behind-the-scenes role in shaping U. William Domhoff , argue that it is in fact a mere policy discussion forum  which provides the business input to U. All the council does is sponsor discussion groups, debates and speakers.
As far as being secretive, it issues annual reports and allows access to its historical archives. Wells promoted cosmopolitanism and offered blueprints for a world revolution and world brain to establish a technocratic world state and planned economy. Countless people When we attempt to evaluate its promise, we have to bear in mind the distress of a generation or so of malcontents, many of them quite gallant and graceful-looking people.
Wells's books were influential in giving a second meaning to the term " new world order ", which would only be used by state socialist supporters and anti-communist opponents for generations to come.
New World Order (conspiracy theory)
However, despite the popularity and notoriety of his ideas, Wells failed to exert a deeper and more lasting influence because he was unable to concentrate his energies on a direct appeal to intelligentsias who would, ultimately, have to coordinate the Wellsian new world order.
British neo-Theosophical occultist Alice Bailey , one of the founders of the so-called New Age movement, prophesied in the eventual victory of the Allies of World War II over the Axis powers which occurred in and the establishment by the Allies of a political and religious New World Order. She saw a federal world government as the culmination of Wells' Open Conspiracy but favorably argued that it would be synarchist because it was guided by the Masters of the Ancient Wisdom , intent on preparing humanity for the mystical second coming of Christ , and the dawning of the Age of Aquarius. According to Bailey, a group of ascended masters called the Great White Brotherhood works on the " inner planes " to oversee the transition to the New World Order but, for now, the members of this Spiritual Hierarchy are only known to a few occult scientists, with whom they communicate telepathically , but as the need for their personal involvement in the plan increases, there will be an "Externalization of the Hierarchy" and everyone will know of their presence on Earth.
https://ntanaradcinrabook.tk Bailey's writings, along with American writer Marilyn Ferguson 's book The Aquarian Conspiracy , contributed to conspiracy theorists of the Christian right viewing the New Age movement as the " false religion " that would supersede Christianity in a New World Order. By this logic, anything that is not Christian is by definition actively and willfully anti-Christian.
Paradoxically, since the first decade of the 21st century, New World Order conspiracism is increasingly being embraced and propagandized by New Age occultists , who are people bored by rationalism and drawn to stigmatized knowledge —such as alternative medicine , astrology , quantum mysticism , spiritualism , and theosophy. Skeptics argue that the connection of conspiracy theorists and occultists follows from their common fallacious premises. First, any widely accepted belief must necessarily be false. Second, stigmatized knowledge—what the Establishment spurns—must be true.
The result is a large, self-referential network in which, for example, some UFO religionists promote anti-Jewish phobias while some antisemites practice Peruvian shamanism.
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Conspiracy theorists often use the term " Fourth Reich " simply as a pejorative synonym for the "New World Order" to imply that its state ideology and government will be similar to Germany's Third Reich. They cite the influence of ex-Nazi scientists brought in under Operation Paperclip to help advance aerospace manufacturing in the U. This neo-Nazi conspiracy is said to be animated by an "Iron Dream" in which the American Empire , having thwarted the Judeo-Masonic conspiracy and overthrown its Zionist Occupation Government , gradually establishes a Fourth Reich formerly known as the "Western Imperium"—a pan - Aryan world empire modeled after Adolf Hitler 's New Order —which reverses the " decline of the West " and ushers a golden age of white supremacy.
Skeptics argue that conspiracy theorists grossly overestimate the influence of ex-Nazis and neo-Nazis on American society, and point out that political repression at home and imperialism abroad have a long history in the United States that predates the 20th century.
Some political scientists, such as Sheldon Wolin , have expressed concern that the twin forces of democratic deficit and superpower status have paved the way in the U. Since the late s, extraterrestrials from other habitable planets or parallel dimensions such as " Greys " and intraterrestrials from Hollow Earth such as " Reptilians " have been included in the New World Order conspiracy, in more or less dominant roles, as in the theories put forward by American writers Stan Deyo and Milton William Cooper , and British writer David Icke. The common theme in these conspiracy theories is that aliens have been among us for decades, centuries or millennia, but a government cover-up enforced by " Men in Black " has shielded the public from knowledge of a secret alien invasion.
Motivated by speciesism and imperialism , these aliens have been and are secretly manipulating developments and changes in human society in order to more efficiently control and exploit human beings. In some theories, alien infiltrators have shapeshifted into human form and move freely throughout human society , even to the point of taking control of command positions in governmental, corporate, and religious institutions, and are now in the final stages of their plan to take over the world.
Skeptics, who adhere to the psychosocial hypothesis for unidentified flying objects , argue that the convergence of New World Order conspiracy theory and UFO conspiracy theory is a product of not only the era's widespread mistrust of governments and the popularity of the extraterrestrial hypothesis for UFOs but of the far right and ufologists actually joining forces.
Barkun notes that the only positive side to this development is that, if conspirators plotting to rule the world are believed to be aliens, traditional human scapegoats Freemasons , Illuminati , Jews , etc. Antiscience and neo-Luddite conspiracy theorists emphasize technology forecasting in their New World Order conspiracy theories.
They speculate that the global power elite are reactionary modernists pursuing a transhumanist agenda to develop and use human enhancement technologies in order to become a " posthuman ruling caste ", while change accelerates toward a technological singularity —a theorized future point of discontinuity when events will accelerate at such a pace that normal unenhanced humans will be unable to predict or even understand the rapid changes occurring in the world around them.
Conspiracy theorists fear the outcome will either be the emergence of a Brave New World -like dystopia —a "Brave New World Order"—or the extinction of the human species. Democratic transhumanists , such as American sociologist James Hughes , counter that many influential members of the United States Establishment are bioconservatives strongly opposed to human enhancement , as demonstrated by President Bush's Council on Bioethics 's proposed international treaty prohibiting human cloning and germline engineering.
Furthermore, he argues that conspiracy theorists underestimate how fringe the transhumanist movement really is. Just as there are several overlapping or conflicting theories among conspiracists about the nature of the New World Order, so are there several beliefs about how its architects and planners will implement it:. Conspiracy theorists generally speculate that the New World Order is being implemented gradually , citing the formation of the U.
An increasingly popular conspiracy theory among American right-wing populists is that the hypothetical North American Union and the amero currency, proposed by the Council on Foreign Relations and its counterparts in Mexico and Canada , will be the next milestone in the implementation of the New World Order.